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青稞酒

12
发表于 2012 年 6 月 12 日 作者 悟空西藏旅游 在 旅游资讯
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青稞酒-藏族青稞酒-藏餐青稞酒
青稞酒的酿制方法西藏各地大同小异,为复式发酵法,其酿制过程一般为:将颗粒饱满的优质青稞用清水淘洗干净,除去石子儿、麦皮等杂质,用清水浸泡后(有的地方淘洗后不再浸泡)放人锅内,掺入适量水煮,边煮边用木片搅拌,以免青稞粘锅底烧煳。煮青稞时不能用猛火,多用中火和小火煮两小时左右,当水干青稞熟透时,将煮熟的青稞均匀摊晾于毯子或席子上,并不时翻搅使之湿度和温度均匀,待青稞酒粮变得不凉不烫即温热时拌以酒曲(拌酒曲时的温度很重要,藏族主妇大都是稔熟、高超的酿酒师,凭经验她们能准确把握煮青稞时的火候和拌酒曲时的温度)盛人陶制酒坛,然后密封坛口,用被毯或衣物包裹酒坛后置于储存饲草的房屋中,酒坛周围铺塞以干草或糠秕。包裹被毯衣物、覆盖干草等措施是为了保持坛内酒粮的温度,以利于酒粮发酵。酿酒所需时间的长短取决于温度的高低,一般夏天只需两三天,冬天为一周左右。有时为了保持温度使酒快些酿成,有的人家在发酵时将酒坛放于火塘附近或温度较高的房屋。酒粮发酵好后,加入凉开水或清水,几小时后便酿成酒香四滥的青稞酒了。每坛酒粮可加水酿制三四次,酿出的酒称为头道酒、二道酒、三道酒。头道酒浓度最高,色泽黄里泛青,味道淳厚甘甜,酒香浓郁,是敬神待客的上等佳酿。第二次加水后的酒浓度稍淡,甜里带酸,清冽甘美,饮后沁人心脾。第三道、四道酒色泽较差,甜味淡而酸味浓,人们常作为解渴的饮料,带到田间地头边劳作边饮用。为了使酒浓淡适宜,许多人家酿酒时多是将几道酒掺和调匀饮用,只留少许头道酒以作品尝或敬神招待贵客之用。

青稞酒中还有称为“达羌”的“月酒”( zla-chang)和“洛羌”(“年酒”,即lo-chang)的陈年老酒。这是在酒粮发酵好后不急于加水酿制,而是仍密封坛口放置于房屋的阴凉处,放置月余或数月后加水酿制的酒称为“月酒”,放置一年或数年再加水酿制则称作“年酒”。放置时问越长,酿出的酒越浓郁醇香。过去只有经济条件好的大户人家才酿制,现在普通人家也多有酿“达羌”甚至“洛羌”的。
藏白酒,藏语称为“博让”( bocl- rag),这是相对于“阿让”(白酒)而后起的一种称谓。过去白酒通称为“阿让”。当各种品牌的外地白酒进入藏地后,遂用“博让”专称藏白酒。,藏白酒同酒精浓度低的青稞酒不同,它是采用双蒸法——即二次蒸馏获得的酒精度较高的饮料。青稞酒“羌”的浓度一般约为10度,藏白酒的酒精度可达30度左右。历史上,藏白酒多是自酿自饮或馈赠亲友,少量用于出售和交换,以藏东芒康一带和后藏亚东—带所产最为有名。藏白酒的传统酿制方法为:当青稞酒粮发酵后(青稞酒粮的煮制发酵同酿青稞酒无异),取一生铁锅或“汉阳”铝锅,锅底铺垫几层麦秸,将发酵好的酒粮倒人锅内,掺水适量。在锅的中央支3个木权作支架,上放一个接酒用的陶罐。然后用一口径相当的锅反扣于上,两锅结合部用密封条封严。以上程序完成后,架柴生火,所用木柴多用坚硬耐烧的青冈木,需保持均匀的火力。这样,酒粮在煮沸后蒸气往上冒,遇阻后变成蒸馏水滴落进陶罐,经一段时间的煮制蒸腾,陶罐内的蒸馏水越积越多,开锅取出陶罐,罐内便储满u『清澈透明、香气四溢的藏白酒。

藏白酒酿制的质量(酒香、色泽、浓度等)受制于许多因素,如青稞原料的等级,酒粮发酵的优劣,是否已提取头道酒,以及每道程序是否到位,温度火候是否掌握恰到好处等,当然还有相伴相生的运气的好坏,缺一不可。
过去人们酿“羌”和“博让”主要是自饮自用和用于交际,如今在商品经济和市场经济大潮中,藏酒已走出家迈出藏地甚至跨出国门,青稞酒和青棵白酒以其馥郁的芳香和至纯的品质深得人们青睐,西藏拉萨生产的“藏乡醇”系列藏酒,青海、四川和云南中甸等藏区所产的系列青稞白酒,已逐渐为人们所认识和喜爱。藏酒不仅传播了藏族的酒文化,而且正作为一种具有潜力的产业同藏族的饮食文化、旅游文化相结合,为藏区经济的发展发挥着积极的作用。


12 Comments


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    悟空西藏旅游

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